Keeping track of regulations and the ever-present concern of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) phasedown can seem daunting. Throughout the rest of this decade, there are many important dates to consider based on the Annual Walk-In Energy Factor (AWEF) metric created by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Additional important dates are based on regulations and guidelines from individual states, such as the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and states with governors in the United States Climate Alliance (USCA). Below is a timeline to help you visualize these important milestones.
Updated March 2023
Ban on production and import of HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b, achieving 99.5 percent of reduction goal.
Minimum AWEF implemented for WICFs with medium-temp condensing and self-contained systems. Click "Learn More About DOE" below.
Minimum AWEF implemented for WICFs with low-temp condensing systems, low-temp self-contained units and medium- and low-temp unit coolers. Click "Learn More About DOE" below.
Phaseout of Class II Ozone-Depleting Substances. Ban on remaining production and import of R-22 and R-142b.
Refrigerants with a GWP greater than 150 are not allowed in California for new, stationary refrigeration systems charged with more than 50 pounds.
EPA SNAP 23 Step 1, effective Jan. 1, 2022, formally added R-448A/449A to original SNAP 20/21 EPA listed refrigerant substitutes, and applies to states that do not have overriding regulations.
Refrigerants with a GWP greater than 750 will not be allowed in chillers (including process chillers) greater than -15°F and ice rinks, effective Jan. 1, 2024.
Refrigerants with a GWP greater than or equal to 2,200 will not be allowed in new chillers ranging from -15°F to -58°F, effective Jan. 1, 2024.
Proposals are submitted for EPA SNAP 23 Step 2, but final decision on resulting GWP limit and effective date is pending. Under this proposal, HFC refrigerants like R448-A/449-A & R404-A will not be allowed in new installations per stated end-use conditions. Users will likely have to switch to HFO refrigerants, such as A2Ls, or natural refrigerants like CO2 and Propane.
Earliest expected increase in minimum AWEF by DOE.
As a party to the Montreal Protocol, the U.S. must incrementally decrease HCFC consumption and production, culminating in a complete HCFC phaseout in 2030.
Companies owning and/or operating fewer than 20 retail food facilities with refrigeration systems charged with more than 50 pounds must collectively meet a 1,400 GWP average or 55 percent greenhouse gas emission potential (GHGp) reduction over 2018 levels, by 2030.
While federal regulations on HFC phasedown are being finalized, some states are creating, or have created, their own laws and regulations for refrigerants and equipment, particularly in states that are part of the USCA. Note that, as of Jan. 1, 2022, SNAP 23 Step 1 is already in effect. On the map below, you can view up-to-date information for each state regarding regulatory guidelines, as well as where a SNAP 23 Step 1 equivalent state level regulation is still pending.
Updated March 2023